The R&D input space spillover effect in 30 provinces of China during 2002—2011 is evaluated from three aspects of government, enterprise and foreign capital, in terms of the geographical features and socio-economic characteristics. The results show that China’s technology innovation has an obvious spatial autocorrelation. Without considering the space spillover, the direct effect of R & D investment will be overestimated. The direct effect of government’s R&D input on innovation output is negative, while spatial spillover effect is positive, thus the overall effect is significantly positive. Direct effect and spatial spillover effect of enterprises’ R&D input are significantly positive. The direct effect of foreign R&D input is significantly positive and spatial spillover effect is greatly influenced by spatial weight matrix, and the overall effect is significantly positive.